Lewis's Life and Influence As we've already seen, part of Lewis's significance came from the breadth of subject matter on which he made major contributions. It is hard to think of a philosopher since Hume who has contributed so much to so many fields. And in all of these cases, Lewis's contributions involved defending, or in many cases articulating, a big picture theory of the subject matter, as well as an account of how the details worked. Because of all his work on the details of various subjects, his writings were a font of ideas even for those who didn't agree with the bigger picture.
Younkins Adam Smithmoral philosopher and economist, wrote two great books, the well-known Wealth of Nations and Theory of Moral Sentiments which has been overshadowed by his treatise on economics.
Contrary to popular belief, these two works do not exist in isolation from one another and TMS is not superseded by WN. Whereas WN is concerned more directly with economic matters, TMS explains a moral system that provides a general framework for the economic domain. WN conveys a detailed understanding of why a free economy works best.
In this work, Smith seeks to discover and formulate the general principles of justice and law in the economic realm.
In WN, Smith addresses individuals' own advantages, self-interest, and self-love which represent one aspect of human nature. Because the commercial man of WN is, for Smith, the virtuous man in only one of his facets, he does not proceed beyond the private virtue of prudence or the limited notion of what we would call metanormative or commutative justice to go into the positive virtue of benevolence.
In WN Smith made economics the study of spontaneous and unintended order which arises when voluntary exchanges among individuals produce benefits for the parties involved. In TMS, Smith examines the process by which individuals adopt moral standards through which they judge actions by others and themselves.
This book explains how individuals can overcome the selfish impulses of the commercial realm. Recognizing that there is more to life than economics and politics and that men possess more than self-regarding sentiments, Smith discusses the phenomena of moral sentiments and sympathetic feelings among men and their desire to please others and gain their approval.
There is a consistency in outlook and general compatibility between TMS and WN and a close relationship between Smith's moral philosophy and economics.
TMS is concerned with the ordering of moral behavior and the maximization of virtue and WN is concerned with the ordering of economic behavior and the maximization of wealth as a means to a higher end.
As a professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow, Smith's course consisted of four parts: His lectures on moral philosophy were the beginnings of TMS.
WN fits into the moral framework of TMS. There is a logical flow from Smith's moral philosophy to his jurisprudence and political economy.
Exchange is shown to occur within the moral framework of his first book. TMS provides the foundational concepts of human nature and morality upon which the ideas of WN rest.
Smith's two books provide a systematic and essentially unified whole in which moral and economic ideas are coordinated and integrated. Both are integral parts of his vision of man and society. Adam Smith's Moral Theory Smith delineates two levels of virtues. His lower or commercial virtues are self-interested ones and include prudence, justice, industry, frugality, constancy, and so on.
Another set of virtues, the primary or nobler virtues, includes benevolence, generosity, gratitude, compassion, kindness, pity, friendship, love, etc. Although there is a hierarchical relationship between these sets of virtues, Smith explains that there must also be a balance or harmony between them.
In the economic sphere, self-interest allows men to operate on the lower level of virtue and yet attain the greatest benefits for society as a whole. A man need not be totally virtuous for the economic system to function to maximize wealth.
The lower virtues are at the base of Smith's value theory and his determination of market prices. Smith explains that, as people get beyond the level of primitive economy to enter an advanced society and civilization, there arises the opportunity to develop higher virtues.
According to Smith, the four principal virtues in a person's life are justice, prudence, benevolence, and self-command. It is through the exercise of self-command, Smith's cardinal virtue, that a man can rein in his selfish impulses, regulate his conduct, and indulge benevolence.
Self-command involves the ability to control one's feelings, to restrain one's passion for his own interests, and to enhance his feelings for others. In TMS, Smith explains the evolutionary process by which the virtues and moral sentiments develop.
He is concerned with what produces moral behavior in man and with how man's sentimental capacity develops. He wants to understand how we progress from having virtually no such standards as children to having widely shared standards of moral judgment as adults. Smith's moral theory relies heavily on the 18th century sentimentalist school of ethics comprised of empiricists who were strongly influenced by David Hume.
Sentiments also known as passions, dispositions, affections, or propensities are feelings or emotions, and according to Smith, are the basis of moral judgment.Teleological ethics Consequentialism.
Consequentialist ethics come from the teleological branch of ethical theory. You will remember that teleological theories focus on the goal of the ethical action. Consequentialist theories are those that base moral judgements on the outcomes of .
Adam Smith () wrote two great books, the well-known Wealth of Nations and Theory of Moral Sentiments which has been overshadowed by his treatise on economics.
Contrary to popular belief, these two works do not exist in isolation from one another. Indeed, each of the branches of deontological ethics—the agent-centered, the patient-centered, and the contractualist—can lay claim to being Kantian.
The agent-centered deontologist can cite Kant's locating the moral quality of acts in the principles or maxims on which the agent acts and not primarily in those acts' effects on others. After you have read this chapter, you should be able to: Define the consequentialist (teleological) and nonconsequentialist (deontological) views of morality.
Ethics. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Start studying Ethics 1.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. teleological moral theory. is one in which ends or goals play a key role.
The Argument For The Ontological Argument - For many, the idea of existence as a predicate causes issues for the ontological argument. In the argument Anselm states that God is a being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, and using logic he comes to . Mohist consequentialism, also known as state consequentialism, is an ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how much it contributes to the welfare of a state. Start studying Ethics 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. teleological moral theory. is one in which ends or goals play a key role. - derivation from economic theory - conformity to commonsense morality.
- derivation from economic theory - conformity to commonsense morality.