April Volume 71 Number 7 Writing: It should be at home in all the content areas. After all, lists change. What never changes, however, is the fact that we educators must prepare our students today for their tomorrows.
Dansereau, Graen, and Haga Classification: A number of fundamental concepts are quite old, such as rewards for supporting leadership being as old as political philosophies from Classical Greek days. Pro's LMX is intuitive. It is what can be expected from a leader-group structure.
The theory points to what people could do to strengthen or weaken the leadership dynamics. The theory explains the dynamic of age-old problems of cronyism, the mechanics of loyalty to a leader and corruption and provides a structure for not only modeling specific situations but solutions to problems.
Con's The LMX theory does not account for leadership personalities very well. LMX is so intuitive that it appears to be obvious. One asks, "What really is new and what is left out? How values affect the group dynamics is left out. Overview How a leader maintains leadership through working with her or his supporters, those entrusted with responsibility and advisers defines the Leader-member Exchange theory as a method for exerting and maintaining leadership.
Discussion Leaders must garner and maintain their leadership position and the Leader-member Exchange theory states that such persons work with associates, supporters, trusted persons with responsibility, advisers and other "inner circle" to maintain her or his position.
Another name for the theory is the "Vertical Dyad Linkage Theory". The word "dyad" means "two", and the two refers to the leader and the others with whom she or he works.
Leaders assume their role by getting adherents. The more support a person gives to a leader, the more she or he will become part of the leader's "inner circle". These adherents, of course, support the leader, and it is this loyalty that the leader seeks to cultivate further.
To reward this support, the leader dispenses favors in the form of jobs, recognition, money, and access to opportunities. Over time, roles may become formalized and the supporter may be brought into a formal role with more power.
However, the leader-subordinate relationship is preserved. At some point, there may be a conflict of power, if the subordinate reaches a level of equal power. There may be conflicts concerning power distribution and philosophies of leadership that can lead to a challenge to the leader.
If there is disaffection with the leader, often the subordinate is relegated to a lower status and in extreme cases is ousted from the leadership circle. The strength of the relationship between the leader and members of the "inner circle" varies with the nature of tasks faced, qualities of the members, integrity of the organization, support for the organization, and so forth.
The more those of the leadership circle work to support the leader, often the more support, rank and responsibility they get. Each case has to be evaluated on its own merit. The range of leaders can be from a person leading a small discussion group or a supervisor of a work crew, to heads of countries or empires.
The more complex the task and organization, the more factors enter into the organizational dynamics.
First, there is the organizational stage, where a person rises from a group for various reasons. There usually is a task that needs to be performed and the approaches of doing it range from anarchy to a single person directing everything.
This person rising from the rest of the crowd may have charisma, intelligence or some quality that others recognize and see as desirable or essential for accomplishing the task. There may be, of course, situations where there is no real task but persons are attracted to another and are desirous to follow.
In this case, the will to socialize for a sense of belonging or companionship are prime motivators. Whatever the case, the leader-rest of the group forms. A second stage of LMX occurs with role development. There are many origins, depending upon why the group was formed.
Group members may simply be mimicking other groups. Tasks usually define the types of roles. Roles can be invented as rewards for favors done for the leader. The need for a division of labor creates the need for roles, as a leader cannot do every aspect of a task.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs. Are all managers leaders? Are all leaders managers? This lesson presents arguments that place a manager and a leader into two separate categories.
The Leader-Member Exchange Theory first appeared in the s. It analyzes the relationship between managers and team members. Team members typically go through three phases in their relationship with their manager: Role-Taking, Role-Making, and Routinization.
Free transformational leadership papers, essays, and research papers. THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes . Absent from the Leader-member Exchange theory is a consideration of leadership personalities.
We are entreated with a general list of qualities that are helpful in maintaining a relationship with the group, such as trust, integrity, and willingness to delegate power, openness, and so forth.