During the last half-century, many writers on ethnology, anthropology, and slavery have strenuously striven to place the Negro outside of the human family; and the disciples of these teachers have endeavored to justify their views by the most dehumanizing treatment of the Negro. But, fortunately for the Negro and for humanity at large, we live now in an epoch when race malice and sectional hate are disappearing beneath the horizon of a brighter and better future. The Negro in America is free. It is proposed, in the first place, to call the attention to the absurd charge that the Negro does not belong to the human family.
Rawkets by Reid Southen Introduction Germinating in regions far apart, these empires easily mastered any sub-utopian worlds that lay within reach. Thus they spread from one planetary system to another, til at last empire made contact with empire. Then followed wars such as had never occurred before in our galaxy.
Fleets of worlds, natural and artificial, manoeuvred among the stars to outwit one another, and destroyed one another with long-range jets of sub-atomic energy.
As the tides of battle spread hither and thither through space, whole planetary systems were annihilated.
Many a world spirit found a sudden end. Many a lowly race that had no part in the strife was slaughtered in the celestial warfare that raged around it.
At least to the extent that competition and aggression are recognized solutions to ecological limitations, evidence accumulated to date suggests that the concept of war should not be strange to many sentient extra terrestrial races.
Purposive murder, which has been called "individual war,"31 has been observed in countless vertebrate animal species, including lions, hyenas, macaques, chimpanzees, gorillas, baboons, elephants seals, wild dogs, hippos, seagulls, bears, and mountain lions. Wilson, this means that lions are excessively violent by human standards: If some imaginary Martian zoologist visiting Earth were to observe man as simply one more species over a very long period of time, he might conclude that we are among the more pacific mammals as measured by serious assaults or murders per individual per unit time, even when our episodic wars are averaged in.
Recent studies of hyenas, lions, and langur monkeys, to take three familiar species, have disclosed that individuals engage in lethal fighting, infanticide, and even cannibalism at a rate far above that found in human societies. When a count is made of the number of murders committed per thousand individuals per year, human beings are well down on the list of violently aggressive creatures.
Hyena packs clash in deadly pitched battles that are virtually indistinguishable from primitive human warfare. I suspect that if hamadryas baboons had nuclear weapons, they would destroy the world in a week. Consider the factors of sentience, dispersion, size and heritage. Beings having genetic sentience have no concept of the self and thus no empathy for the pain and suffering of others.
Genetic warriors should be the most ruthless and persistent, each individual driven on by the community urge with no thought of self-preservation. Similarly, communal sentients should be highly pacific among themselves but instantly reactive to any threat to the community at large.
Personal sacrifice may be moderated by personal consciousness, but war will be perceived more as a match between two social organisms rather than as a contest between individual combatants. Patriotism may serve as a primary emotion rather than a vague ethical ideal, so communal soldiers may fight with a unity of purpose unparalleled in all of human experience.
Finally, brain sentients such as human beings will fear for the integrity of the self without the matching support of a visceral sense of community. Xenologists expect them to be among the poorest warriors in the Galaxy.
The late Quincy Wright, a leading international jurist and political scientist, showed that the frequency of war on Earth is inversely correlated with the number of barriers to mobility.
As heritage becomes more divergent, war between the different social units is expected to become more frequent since, according to Wright: Cultural heterogeneity within a state tends to involve it in wars of two types: On energy considerations alone, war may be rather inexpensive. In an earlier chapter we discussed the dispatch of starliners similar in bulk to the Starship Enterprise.
Let us convert to wartime status.
Our heavy cruiser starvessel is dispatched from Capitol World at a steady 1 gee acceleration, reaching the enemy star system light-years distant in 9 years shipboard time using a Standard Flight Plan. When it arrives in orbit around the sole inhabited planet of the enemy star system, it hammers the civilization into submission by destroying all major population centers.
This is accomplished by fusing into molten slag the top ten meters of 0. The equivalent of this in antimatter, if the energy is stored that way, is a mere tons, which could handily be carried aboard aton starship.
Similarly, a human-lethal dose of neutron radiation over the entire land surface of Earth probably requires no more than megatons of well-placed nuclear explosives, corresponding to an energy requirement of only joules. Since either mission easily could be mounted by a mature Type II society, a galactic Type III civilization should find the effort of interstellar warfare rather trivial.
Planetary sterilization might well be a standard instrument of foreign policy among ruthless expansionistic or totalitarian alien governments. Will ETs experience the same motivations that have driven human beings to war for thousands of years?
A desire for more living space is an oft-cited cause of war. There is no reason why population growth could not motivate competitive confrontations between alien races, especially during the initial phase of galactic expansion and colonization. Eventually, of course, even the Galaxy will be filled to capacity.
At least during the initial portion of galactic enculturation, interstellar lebensraum cannot be ruled out. Another cause of war is the quest for power and security. Since we know that it is energetically fairly cheap both to attack and to be attacked, natural predatory alien instincts could find a convenient outlet.Black History: - ISLE OF BARBADOS, , ONE CENT, In , at about the same time as some of the newly formed American states were coining coppers, a penny size copper, was minted in England for iridis-photo-restoration.com token is thought to have been privately commissioned by Phillip Gibbs, a local plantation owner.
Bestselling author Randall Robinson, one of our nation's most distinguished African-American leaders, returns with a book certain to be as important and controversial as his classic book on reparations, The Debt. The man hailed by Cornel West as "the greatest pro-Africa freedom fighter of his generation in America" makes a striking departure, figuratively and literally: He leaves America .
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The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph. The HyperTexts English Poetry Timeline and Chronology English Literature Timeline and Chronology World Literature Timeline and Chronology This is a timeline of English poetry and literature, from the earliest Celtic, Gaelic, Druidic, Anglo-Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman works, to the present day.
AMY GOODMAN: In your book, The Debt, Randall Robinson, you talk about a proposal by the former Mayor of Atlanta, Maynard Jackson, talking about every African American in this country holding the.